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We reported these results stratified by country, sex, and region.
On a daily basis, most children This paper highlights an urgent need to create healthier food and drink environments, reinforce health systems to promote healthy diets, and continue to support child nutrition and obesity surveillance. Keywords: nutrition, child, obesity, surveillance, health, noncommunicable diseases, children, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks 1.
Introduction It is important for a child to eat a healthy diet in order to joao images swiss anti aging malnutrition stunting, wasting, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity and noncommunicable diseases NCDs [ 12 ]. Low-quality diets are now believed to be the single biggest risk factor for the global burden of disease [ 3 ]. In recent decades, changes in dietary patterns and physical activity behaviors have been identified as likely contributors to a rise in childhood obesity [ 45 ].
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The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide [ 9 ]. Food preferences and eating habits established in childhood and adolescence tend to be maintained into adulthood [ 13 ], making nutrition in childhood an important public health issue.
A healthy diet includes adequate quantities and appropriate proportions of fruit, vegetables, legumes e. A healthy diet eliminates trans fats of all kinds. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages should be limited, as it has been associated with increased body weight [ 18 ] and dental caries [ 19 ].
Established inCOSI collects high-quality data on the childhood obesity prevalence and energy-balance-related behaviors [ 20 ].
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These data enable countries to set national targets, monitor trends over time, make comparisons between countries, and over time, to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention efforts. Given the importance of nutrition in childhood, alongside the rising cei mai buni nutrienți anti-îmbătrânire in childhood obesity, this study used the most recent results from the COSI study to describe the eating behaviors of children aged 6—9 years from across the WHO European Region.
Completion of the form was voluntary and participants could opt out or choose not to participate at any time. Local ethics approval was also granted.
Details for this approval are found in Supplementary Box S1. More details on the joao images swiss anti aging collection procedures are provided elsewhere [ 202223 ].
Parents were asked to report on a number of food items, shown in Supplementary Figure S1. For this paper, we reported on the consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables excluding potatoessavory snacks e. These questions were selected because they provided a summary that was related to common sources of nutrients of interest [ 24 ].
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These examples were identified by leading nutrition experts within the country and approved by the government-appointed principal investigator of the study. All questionnaires were translated from English into the local language, and then back-translated into English to check for discrepancies with the original English form.
Geographic regions were based on the United Nations Standard Geographical regions, which are based on continental regions and are further subdivided into sub-regions and intermediary regions that are drawn to obtain greater homogeneity in the sizes of the population, demographic circumstances, and accuracy of demographic statistics [ 25 ].
We did not include sub-regional pooled estimates because these subregions include countries that are not participating in COSI, and therefore a sub-regional estimate would not provide an accurate assessment of the situation in that geographical area. For each variable, we calculated the frequency of consumption according to country and sex. We applied post-stratification weights to adjust for the sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse proportions in order to infer results from the sample of the population.
These were available and applied for all countries, with the one exception of Lithuania, where an unweighted analysis was carried out. All analyses took account of the complex survey nature of the data i. An adjusting factor was applied to the post-stratification weights to take account of differences in the population sizes of the countries involved.
The adjusting factor was based on the number of children belonging to the targeted age group according to Eurostat figures or national official statistics for A p-value of 0. Results A total ofchildren from 23 countries were included in the analysis. The number of participants per country varied widely, from children in San Marino to 43, in Italy Table 1.
Most of the children