Magia Si Vrajitoria Din Evul Mediu Pana Astazi

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Acta Musei, VI. Rezumat: Acest studiu discută cele mai recente interpretări ale cronologiei culturii Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladove, interpretări propuse de cercetătorii pe baza noilor date de cronologie ce completează şi compară sistemele cronologice mai vechi.

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Cuvinte cheie: cronologie, intrepretări arheologice, cultura Lepenski Vir - Schela Cladovei, Mezolitic, Neolitic Timpuriu Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei 1 culture seems to have its beginnings simultaneous with the debut of Holocene. This culture was formed in Mesolithic, and in its final stage of evolution it comes into contact with the Early Neolithic cultural complex of Starčevo-Criş 2.

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In the last years, since 3the chronological data increased mostly by technological evolution and became somehow 4 more reliable, adding new information to the existing archaeological data. Later on, it was noticed the similitude between the two, so that the logistician cfc swiss anti aging terminology began to be in use, either as Schela Cladovei — Lepenski Vir culture or as Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture.

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Alibeg — Pescari; 2. Padina; 3. Lepenski Vir; 4. Vlasac; 5. Cuina Turcului — Dubova; 6.

Ogradena — Icoana; 8. Ogradena — Răzvrata; 9.

Hajdučka Vodenica; Ostrovul Banului - Gura Văi; Schela Cladovei — Drobeta-Turnu Severin; Velesnica; Ostrovul Mare — Gogoşu - km fluviali ; Ostrovul Mare 7 chronology of the culture as a whole. Nevertheless, the interpretations were various, as each of the archaeologists involved in the direct research of the sites had their own particular terminology to address the new discoveries.

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Thus, there were several periodizations proposed for the internal evolution of Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture 6. Therefore the recent research focused on AMS analyses of animal and human bones while research continued on the whole archaeological findings discovered in the sites of this culture, aiming, on the basis of the distribution of this materials within the settlements and the logistician cfc swiss anti aging relation they bear with the archaeological structures, to obtain a more accurate interpretation of the later, and so, of the whole chronology of this culture 7.

In the same time, new chronological data were obtained for the majority of the sites, be that by correction of the old data, or by obtaining fresh new ones.

I gladly and anxiously address you my greeting message, to you, the organizers and participants to this Conference.

Direct archaeological research, in the field, continued at Schela Cladovei the project is still ongoing and at Vlasac between the yearsas also in the proximity of Lepenski Vir site, at the site Aria Babi between the years situated on the Košobrdo Hill, where the remains of an Early Neolithic settlement were discovered Borić13; Borićtable 1. Based on this new data, the author discusses some of the recent proposed interpretations for the chronology of Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture.

Further more, as already stressed out before by the researchers themselves, who had obtain these new data, some of the samples were 8 Although sites such Padina, which was so often used in comparison with Lepenski Vir when discussing their internal chronology, is in my opinion a site that also raises problems. Especially with the data so poorly published, and especially because it was used cea mai bună pudră de finisare anti-îmbătrânire probably will be still as an argument when discussing Lepenski Vir site.

Therefore, I will underline the fact that the chronological data must be considered rather markers to which we relate when trying to fit in time the archaeological discoveries.

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The way that these discoveries were researched, recorded and published — a fact that is underlined in the majority of articles having this culture as subject — is important in trying to establish the chronology of a site or of a culture as a whole.

And since there are all those discrepancies in the archaeological field research of the sites assigned to Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture not only for these ones in the whole archaeology!

Наверное, это так, поскольку траектория полета не изменилась после начала ускорения. А если мы отправляемся к Тау Кита, что мы там обнаружим. Другой комплекс, подобный Узлу.

But there are notable efforts from both sides of the Danube to increase the volume of data, as the publications grew more in number after Therefore this paper is interested in the available data and will not take its safety measure on the one waiting to see the light of day. Logistician cfc swiss anti aging latest and almost complete paper which presents the current chronological data for the majority of the sites from both banks of the Danube is The Mesolithic of the Iron Gates Bonsall Another new paper is Absolute Chronology and Stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir Borić and Dimitrijević which provides the data for the eponymous site itself.

Boroneanţpresented inhaving with an approximate translation the title as Transition Period from Mesolithic to Early Neolithic at the Iron Gates This paper presents unpublished field 10 Absolute dating by using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS on human and animal bone samples, corrected for the freshwater reservoir effect see Bonsall et al.


And this effort was followed by the same author in her latest publication, namely The Mesolithic in Banat A. Boroneanţ which capitalizes the work done in her PhD thesis. In the first publication mentioned above, the authors proposed a 7- stage chronology for the Romanian banks of the Danube, as follows: 1- cca. In the second publication, the author proposed a 4 - stage periodization, for both banks of the Danube: 1- Early Mesolithic cca.

In the third publication, the authors proposed a new periodization of the Lepenski Vir site see figure 1. In the last publication mentioned, the author A. All these papers will be addressed in the paragraphs below.

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The conclusions that most of the new 12 researchers came to, on the basis of the new data obtained in the last years of research, is logistician cfc swiss anti aging this culture appears in the Mesolithic period evolving into the Early Neolithic period, being one of the best examples of the so-called Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe.

One first problem that concerns chronological data is that authors often use, in the same paper the two terminologies BP before present and BC before Christ. It would be a desiderate that scientists will choose one of the two.

Totui, n contextul culturii medievale, lucrurile erau foarte diferite. A numi o practic sau o credin superstiie" ar fi putut-o marca drept produs al ignoranei sau al deriziunii, cnd, de fapt, magia" implica adesea o form distinctiv de raionalitate ale crei principii teologii, filozofii i oamenii de tiin se strduiau s le neleag. Magia demonic presupunea o alian sinistr cu demonii; cum se putea iniia o asemenea colaborare i cum puteau demonii s acioneze asupra ordinii naturale?

Second discussion A second problem would be the terminology, which after all, it is just terminology. But some authors regard them as self-explanatory words, and even more, somehow trying to find data to enforce a particular terminology.

We should provide clear support for a certain terminology. Thus, regarding the period called Mesolithic- Neolithic transition, there are authors that use the expression transformational phase see figure 1.

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The argument for transformational phase would be 13 that elements related to Neolithic way of life were found within some of the settlements of Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei culture. But, they were not in use by the whole community, thus no major transformation of life appeared within these communities.

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The one site which brought about this proposed interpretation, was Lepenski Vir itself, where 15 trapezoidal buildings Borić14out of c. And from all the other sites, just for the one of Padina III site was mentioned the presence of ceramics, in 8 out of the 17 trapezoidal buildings Radovanovićassigned to Padina B phase. Regarding this last site, the evidence is not logistician cfc swiss anti aging clear as some authors would like to believe.

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On the current data, namely the photographs that show the ceramics in situ at Padina, we have to state that the evidence is 12 Because some of the researchers, such as D. Srejović and V. Boroneanţ, engaged before in the research of this culture, and came to the same conclusion years ago, with less data available. If we take an example, namely the photos at figure 8 from D. Borićone can see, when enlarging the right photograph see fig.

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And as far as I know, in situ should not be regarded as an artifact situated in a site, but as an artifact clearly integrated in a structure or a cultural level. In this case, the pot is not on the platform of what would be the floor of the structure labeled house If it had been, then the logistician cfc swiss anti aging 15 would have been with its bottom firmly resting on it, and not on a pedestal as it is clearly shown in the picture.

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And this is just one example of a trapezoidal building from Padina site, I use here to discuss such statement - …abundant Early Neolithic pottery is clearly associated with trapezoidal buildings at Padina Borićp. This example should question the validity of using such expressions as the one quoted. Moreover, the last publication on this site, done by the excavator himself, B.

Jovanović also states the uncertainty in relating the pottery with the Lepenski Vir — Schela Cladovei cultural layer Jovanović, which enforces my argument.