Résistance anticommuniste roumaine

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Petre Gheorghe Bârlea, U. Colegiul de redacţie: Acad. Marius Sala, membru al Academiei Române Acad. Cercetător st.

Cuza Iași, Prof. Une tradition orientale? Two linguistic writings, Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum Caransebeş, aboutthe first original dictionary based on the Romanian language, and Institutiones linguae Valachicae Crişana, aboutthe first grammar of the Romanian language written in Latin, attest to the explicit use of a Latin model in an age in which the whole of our culture was still strongly influenced by Slavonic models.

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Keywords: History of the Romanian language, old Romanian literature, Latin model, linguistic writings. The period of old Romanian literary writing comes under consideration, in publications intended for the public at large, but also in some specialist studies presenting an overview of the forme anti-imbatranire production until the end of the 18 th century, at the dawn of the Transylvanian Enlightenment, as a period dominated by the Slavonic cultural model.

This opinion persisted even after the discovery of some humanistic elements in the work of certain Romanian scholars writing during the troubled decades of the 17 th and 18 th centuries, scholars who studied and 7 8 used Latin, such as Miron and Nicolae Costin or Dimitrie Cantemir.

This is the case even after it was noted that, at the end of the 17 th century and in the early s, several texts coming from Western Europe were transposed or adapted into Romanian, being meant to satisfy the need for knowledge and instruction of the intellectuals in the Romanian space.

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For example, I m thinking of the translation of some occidental prognoses written in Italian for the use of Constantin Brâncoveanu, under the common title of Foletul Novel Newssheet ; at the adaptation into Romanian of the most widely read Western novel of the time, under the title Ceasornicul domnilor The Princes Clock by Nicolae Costin, the scholarly son of the renowned Moldavian chronicler; or the adaptation, in a manner which comes very close to what nowadays would be described as an original writing, by the learned Wallach Teodor Corbea, of the first Latin-Romanian encyclopaedic dictionary, entitled Dictiones Latinae cum Valachica interpretatione.

Realised with the subsidy of Father Mitrofan, bishop for Buzău a remarkable fact not only for the end of the 17 th century who was a clergyman renowned for his laponie voyage suisse anti aging open-mindedness and his remarkable cultural activity, Teodor Corbea s work includes 37, entries, a figure hard to attain even in a modern lexicographic work 1. The idea regarding the predominance of the Slavonic cultural model in old Romanian writing continued to persist in some studies, laponie voyage suisse anti aging after it laponie voyage suisse anti aging observed that, around the s, Romanian had become the official language of culture and after our elevated literary writing had adopted and included in the everyday lexis over 1, neologisms of Latin-Romanic origin even before beginning from the first half of the 15 th century, when Romanian was only a language of everyday, interpersonal communication 2.

This had been adopted as a way of overcoming the difficulties of expressing some new realities that Romanians had encountered through ever increasing contacts with the Western cultural space.

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It was a recourse attested by laponie voyage suisse anti aging speech, where some longstanding Latin-Romanic loans were so well integrated into everyday usage 1 For the text edition and its main characteristics, see the edition by Alin-Mihai Gherman, Teodor Corbea, Dictiones Latinae cum Valachica interpretatione, Clusium, [Cluj-Napoca], Detailed considerations and illustrations regarding this lexical influences can be found in Gh.

I m thinking of căprar, a loan word from the beginning of the 18 th century, from Italian or from mediaeval Latin, mediated by the Polish word caprał corporal. There was also the savant method of creating terminologies in various domains of scientific activity, subsequently abandoned because of the competition exercised by direct savant borrowings, after the changing of the translators cultural attitude.

I have in mind the structural or semantic loan translation, by which the grammatical case, for example, was called cădere fall in 17 th and 18 th century texts.

The Slavonic mediation could not change the effect of the first Greco-Latin model. Thus, Marea cea din mijloc de pământ the Midland Sea designated the Mediterranean Sea in our first geographical writings. This answer, characteristic of the self-sufficiency gained by the cultured man, and ornate with the attendant explanatory parenthesis, goes as laponie voyage suisse anti aging Eu pe mine niciodată nu mă chem au în-locul-numelui gramatica n-aţi citit, unde arată că mă în-locul-numelui eu de căderea-cea-chemătoare se lipseşte?

However, for the theme discussed here, the references made so far, which can be supplemented by many others I am thinking, for example, of the influences of Latin writing recorded by specialists in texts written in the Cyrillic alphabet or of the influences of the same orthographic model acting upon some texts written in a Magyar, Polish or German orthographic mannerhave, on the whole, a smaller importance than two original writings, both belonging to the linguistic domain, in which the Latin model was integrally adopted.

It is the case of two very important old Romanian texts, little known, unfortunately, crema pentru curatarea fetei aslavital only in philological education: the first dictionary with a 9 10 Romanian basis, entitled Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum 3, and the first original grammar of the Romanian language, written in Latin, entitled Institutiones linguae Valachicae 4.

Both are entirely original texts, meant to present the structure and characteristics of the Romanian language to foreigners who know or speak Latin. The presence in the two titles of the determiner Valachicum explicitly indicates laponie voyage suisse anti aging cultural belonging of the intended readership. The first original dictionary of the Romanian language, entitled Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum, is kept in the manuscript section of the University Library Eötvös Loránd in Budapest, where it could have ended up through an acquisition from the first half of the 19 th century.

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The characteristics of the paper the colour, consistency and origin and of the handwriting the sort of ink and the shape of the lettersas well as the aspect of some of the pages show that the volume we know today resulted from the joining of two independent manuscripts.

The other 91 pages were added at the beginning of the 18 th century for the copying of several Latin quotations Connotationes ex adagiisalphabetically ordered, but due to the small number of fragments transcribed, most of the pages were left blank. The two parts of the manuscript were adjoined beforewhen one of the owners of the lexicon, an envoy of the Western Church, wrote down the names of several places he visited in southern Transylvania and in Hunedoara, in an Itinerarium written on the last pages.

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Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum is written by a sole person, in Latin alphabet and Magyar orthography. The author of the text, a Romanian intellectual who knew Latin very well, also made numerous modifications in 3 The text was edited in the volume Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum, Editura Academiei Române, Bucureşti, For details regarding the text see the volume entitled Institutiones linguae Valachicae.


The lexicon was also annotated in several places by three later readers, one of whom translated a few title entries into Hungarian. The paper fibre analysis of the older part of the manuscript in laponie voyage suisse anti aging University Library in Budapest shows that Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum was written around the year According to the opinion formulated by B.

Hasdeu, the discoverer and first exegete of the text, it had been written in the last decades of the 17 th century, while Grigore Creţu, the author of the first complete edition, dated the writing of the lexicon around A series of linguistic particularities phonetic forms and regional dialect wordsthe use of Hungarian orthography for the writing of Romanian words, as well as the presence as separate entries of several place names in the south-western corner of Romania prove that the text was compiled in the Caransebeş area.

For this reason, Grigore Creţu called the lexicon Anonymus Caransebesiensis, thus replacing the old name, Anonymus Lugoshiensis, given by B. Hasdeu, who considered that this first Romanian-Latin dictionary was compiled in the surroundings of Lugoj. The author of the writing, an anonymous intellectual, erroneously identified by some researchers as being Mihail Halici, must have belonged to the cultural movement in Banat, which is illustrated, in the 17 th and 18 th centuries, by several manuscripts using the Latin alphabet.

These were mainly copies of the Romanian translation of the Calvinist Songbook - Cartea de cântece. The first ample lexicographic writing accomplished in the Romanian space, based on the Romanian language and written with Latin letters is of particular importance for examining the evolution of our old literary phase neutre couleur suisse anti aging. The author of the text was extremely versed in both the Latin language he sometimes recorded forms, spellings and meanings rarely attested in texts and the Romanian language in the latter case, in both its literary variant and its specific dialectal idiom of Banat at the middle of the 17 th century.

Unele verbe neregulate de grupa a III-a au forme proprii de participiu trecut. Lista verbelor cu participiu neregulat: Avoir- eu Voir a vedea - vu Savoir a sti -su Pouvoir a putea - pu Devoir a trebui, a datora -du Croire a crede -cru Lire a citi - lu Vouloir a vrea - voulu Boire a bea - bu Recevoir a primi -reu Apercevoir a observa - aperu Connatre a cunoaste -connu Paratre a parea - paru Vivre a trai - vcu Falloir a trebui - fallu Partir a pleca -parti Suivre a urma, a urmari -suivi Sortir a iesi -sorti Rire a rade -ri Prendre a lua - pris Mettre a pune -mis remettre-remis admettre-admis Acqurir a obtine -acquis Dire a spune -dit crire a scrie -crit Faire a face - fait Ouvrir a deschide -ouvert Observatie!!!!! Verbele terminate in -vrir, -frir formeaza participiul trecut astfel: Vrir vert Couvrir- couvert 33 Frir fert Offrir-offert 2.

Among the words registered one can distinguish, as it became evident the very moment the manuscript was discovered in the summer ofan extremely rich corpus of regional dialect words, most of them originating in Magyar and Serbian, though many are old forms inherited from Latin or 11 12 lexemes with a still unknown etymology. Many entries represent the first attestations allowing the dating back to an earlier period of the known records for several lexical forms and variants.

And the registering of over names of plants trees, bushes, medicinal herbs and plants, vegetables and cereals, flowers, and especially fruit treesmany of them without their Latin correspondent, indicate the anonymous author s interest in contemporary names in current use in Banat and the Caransebeş area.

The anonym of Caransebeş, attentive to the linguistic reality of the region he inhabited, though entirely exempt from the pressure of any high culture model which he might have wanted to transpose into Romanian, thus proved to be a genuine laponie voyage suisse anti aging, respectively, as the well-known botanist Al. Borza remarked, a knower of plants and popular words better than Fabricius, Melius şi Beythe 5, the three renowned Hungarian botanists of the time. The last lexical series mentioned that of fruit treescomprises, for example, names of varieties which are absent from other old sources.

For 5 Al. The manner of recording and ordering such a rich inventory of words demonstrates the persistent way in which the anonymous author of this Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum, for the first time in the Romanian space, followed the Latin lexicographic model. The influence exercised by Latin, which is remarkable in a period mid th century in which Romanian writing was dominated by the Slavonic model, also has important consequences for the orthography of title-words.

We are referring primarily to many significant deviations from the norms of Hungarian spelling among these are the use of c and ch instead of k, or the creation of some graphemes for rendering some sounds of the Romanian language, sh, dsh or dz.

We have in view especially the frequent recordings of some etymological spellings which prove a good knowledge of the existing link between some Romanian words and their Latin equivalents.

Most probably not intended to serve a didactic purpose acquiring a language of culture, in this case Latin, by means of Romanianas the majority of old Romanian lexicons, but meant as a thoroughly detailed presentation of the vocabulary of the Romanian language by means of Latin glosses, Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum attests to a first utilization of the Latin model in a linguistic writing prior to the year The oldest grammar of the Romanian language written in Latin, known to us so far, entitled Institutiones linguae Valachicae, is a manuscript kept in the archives of the Archbishopric Library in Kalocsa Hungary.

The rather short text laponie voyage suisse anti aging only 44 pages in format -4 owas written, as the dedication and the preface show, at the request and suggestion of the abbot Francisc Xaverius Rhier, a catholic canon of Oradea-Mare and archdeacon of Szolnokul de Mijloc.

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Under the same patronage was written another Romanian manuscript, Lexicon compendiarium Latino-Valachicum, kept in the same library in Hungary the two writings being erroneously considered, most probably because of their registration code, parts of a single manuscript, written by a sole author.

Institutiones linguae Valachicae was written around the yearafter the model of a concise grammar of the Latin language likely to be identified in the handbook printed in Sibiu in by Michael Ajtai or in another, still laponie voyage suisse anti aging, quite similar to this one in terms of structure and manner of organization of laponie voyage suisse anti aging subject matterin order to facilitate the quick learning the Romanian language by the western missionaries working in the Romanian communities in Bihor at the middle of the 18 th century.

Laponie voyage suisse anti aging explains the structure and content of the grammar book, the frequent references, in the chapter devoted to the Cyrillic script, to the phonetic value of some graphemes in written Hungarian and, not least, the presence at the end of the lexicon, of the capital letters O. The author of the writing erroneously identified by some researchers as being Grigore Maior, who had committed himself before Petru Pavel Aaron, at the middle laponie voyage suisse anti aging the 17 th century, to writing, together with Silvestru Caliani, a first monolingual explanatory Romanian 14 15 dictionary was a Romanian intellectual from the southern region of Crişana of from the neighbouring area of Hunedoara, who had studied at the Jesuit college in Cluj.

According to the subtitle Grammatica compendio exhibita and to some notations included in the preface, the writer of this old Romanian linguistic text was able to capture, by means of a surprisingly modern analysis, meant to discover the system of the language, the distinctive features of some grammatical classes and forms.

These essential characteristics and the basic rules of Romanian were meant to facilitate the acquisition of a general knowledge of the language and then, by reading books and by using it, sometimes even among its speakers, the quick learning of Romanian. The method was borrowed, as specified in the same introductory section of the manuscript, from the short books commonly devoted at that time to Latin, the language to which this Romanian idiom owes its origin.

This affirmation is reinforced by repeated observations regarding the similarity of the morphological particularities of the nouns and verbs in Latin and Romanian, and, respectively, the numerous existing concordances between Latin syntax and the patterns of Romanian syntactic constructions.

Thus, the pages of the writing contain, in different chapters, affirmations in support cauze cearcane sub ochi the Latin model followed, a model which also became a way of quick learning for users of Latin of an idiom which, for the first time, was demonstrably proved to be of Latin origin: Wallach nouns, just as the Latin ones, are characterised by gender, number and case ; Verbs, even in this idiom, as in the case of Latin, entail numbers, persons masca cu capsuni pentru ten moods ; just as in Latin, in the Wallach language, the manner of constructing the passive voice can be changed into that of the active voice ; Laponie voyage suisse anti aging syntax concords in almost all aspects with the Wallach construction types.

Being part of a programme conceived by the leadership of the Catholic Church in Oradea-Mare, with correspondences in similar writings, realized with the same cultural purpose laponie voyage suisse anti aging other regions of the Austro- Hungarian Empire, Institutiones linguae Valachicae as well as Lexicon compendiarium Latino-Valachicum, the other Romanian manuscript in Kalocsacannot be associated with the preoccupations of the intellectuals of the Transylvanian School Şcoala Ardeleană with the norming of literary Romanian.

Having appeared separately from the renowned Transylvanian Latinist movement and having preceded by a decade the famous Elementa 15 16 linguae Daco-Romanae sive Valachicae, printed in Viena by Samuil Micu and Gheorghe Şincai, the Romanian grammar in Kalocsa is thus the first original Romanian grammar which exclusively follows a Latin model and which explicitly affirms the Latinate character of the grammatical structures of the Romanian language.

The most modern of our old grammars has thus a particular place among other old Romanian linguistic writings. Old Romanian writing, dominated by textual models and patterns assimilated by way of influence or through the exclusive mediation of Slavonic, attests quite early, especially in the space beyond the Carpathians, to the existence of literary, textual or merely cultural Latin models.

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The permanent aspiration of the old Romanian scholars for Latinity can thus be illustrated not only by the vocabulary Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, the one who discovered that Luca Stroici, the learned Warden of Suceava, was the father of Latin-Romanian philology, observed that the lexical stock of Latin origin of our language increases as we go further back in timenor solely by the orthography for instance, some authors wrote, in texts with Laponie voyage suisse anti aging characters, according to the Hungarian or Polish orthographic manner: afflat; hommu, humeru; christin; bonu sau comu or by the choice of sources from the Latin and Romance space.

Such linguistic writings as the two analysed above, Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum and Institutiones linguae Valachicae, which clearly highlight culturally-oriented attitudes and actions, attest to the explicit use of a Latin model in an age when old Romanian culture as a whole was still strongly influenced by the Slavonic space. This has been made possible by the evolution of tools alphabets, writing, equipments, new media falling into this field. It has drawn our attention to our inner imaginary world, a product of pure fiction or a result of fantasy.

Its impact has been so strong that it seems to be demiurgic.

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Promoted to the rank of art, developed on aesthetic and stylistic principles, imbued with spirit, literature has become a luminous path to the humanity within us.

Literature is revealed to us as the Bodiless Beauty, because it exists in a virtual environment. The revolution of laponie voyage suisse anti aging communication technologies and the invention of intelligent, information-providing media have triggered a complete reconfiguration of human society.

The consequences of this evolution include the displacement of the existing barriers and, strictly speaking, the blending of habits, rules, unguente pentru pliurile nazolabiale cultural, ethical, moral, religious, juridical, economic and culinary codes.

The entrance to the Information Age and the phenomenon of globalization are also the centre of attention of contemporary debates, eliciting numerous answers to questions regarding the future of society.

In this new context, literature faces its own challenges. Despite the aura which the syntagm the new man seems to be continuously refreshing as a result of the semantic updating of its first term, which bears significations such as evolved, improved, recent, original, novel, up-to-date, contemporary, modern [1, ], it is almost two millennia old. And that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind, laponie voyage suisse anti aging put on the Recenzii despre crema antirid Mary Kay self, which in the likeness of God [2, ] has been created, this is the first attestation lying at the origin of this type of occurrence, which illustrates the inner irrepressible, yet desirable impulse, which animates the permanency of the thinking being.

History has added ever more details to the concept of the new man, increasing its degree of credibility as a result of the development of knowledge and of human consciousness. The following ages have resumed them from the start, in accordance with the data and the elements added meanwhile.

Hardly any well-built society has missed the construction of a new type of man.

The initiative of his improvement has been extended to the social sphere. Plato s The Republic is a primum movens in the landscape of utopias-to-be. Laponie voyage suisse anti aging on, Cicero wrote about homo novus [3, I, 39] in the Roman society, insisting on qualities such as acknowledging the merits and their utility in front of one s peers. The architect Vitruvius, contemporary with the famous orator, managed to draw the prototype of the new man, an idea taken over by the Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci, and contracted, in full anatomic equilibrium, in the term the vitruvian man.

This endless adventure involved Salvador Dali too, with his painting Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Manan opportunity for us to notice the inconsistency of all forms of arts as well as the public taste, something which we will address in the following pages I.

Beginning with the second half of the second millennium of the Common Era, the role played by man in society enthralled the authors of those visionary writings, the famous utopias. These writers had in common the belief in the possibility of the structural transformation of the human being, and the advent of a new man, completely different from the old one, a man of certainty and enlightenment.

Approximately in the same period of time, the philosopher, mathematician, and writer René Descartes was crystallizing the content of the enlightened ideas in his famous Cartesian adage: dubito, ergo cogito, cogito ergo sum I.